Serum Lipid Profile

Serum Lipid Profile
Serum lipid profile is a test that checks the total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and others. It is also known as lipid panel, and it is a combination of blood tests that help in mapping the quantities of lipids.
The component tests of lipid profile are
I. Total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio
II. Serum phospholipids
III. Serum HDL cholesterol
IV. Serum total cholesterol
V. Serum triglycerides
VI. Total lipids
VII. Electrophoretic fractionation

Serum lipid profile ranges

Serum cholesterol

Serum total cholesterol test measures the sum of high-density lipoproteins and low density lipoprotein. High density lipoprotein gotten from experimental values (test values) while low density lipoprotein if calculated from high density lipoprotein. Total serum cholesterol levels maybe a useful biological marker of suicidal risk.

In order to measure both free cholesterol and esterified cholesterol, samples are treated with cholesteryl ester hydrolase to release cholesterol from fatty acid esters.

The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced by the oxidase reaction which is then typically measured by a peroxidase based methods (example hemoglobin, Bilirubin, ascorbic acid and uric acid) also affect cholesterol measurements, although these interferences are minimised by current approaches such as the use of multiple wavelengths, kinetic measurements and bilirubin oxidase.

Total cholesterol/HDL chole and LDL cholesterol ratios in serum lipid profile are used to predict ischemic heart disease risk. There is no consensus on which of the two indices is superior.

It is indicative of The activity of the heart.
Phospholipids comprise about one-third (⅓) of the total lipids in serum. These consist in a large part of a lipid phosphatidylcholine (lecithin). It is employed in the first order test in the diagnosis of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency. Alcohol inhibits phospholipase activity

The importance of phospholipids in serum lipid profile is for the structure and integrity of cellular membranes suggest that many functional disturbances in liver cirrhosis maybe related to changes in phospholipids fatty acid composition.

It is known that the fatty acid profile of serum phospholipids reflects the fatty acid composition of cell membranes.

Serum HDL Cholesterol
Studies performed in the 1950s and early 1960s have shown that the serum cholesterol level increases when dietary carbohydrates are replaced by 13 saturated fatty acids and decreases when carbohydrates are replaced by (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids.

This test measures the level of good cholesterol in the body. People with healthy HDL cholesterol level are at a lower risk for coronary artery disease.

Serum Triglycerides
This phase of serum Lipid Profile depicts the amount of triglycerides in the blood  also serum. Triglycerides known as neutral fats, triglycerols or triacylglycerides are a common simple type of lipid, consisting of three long chain fatty acids esterified to glycerol.

Two main synthetic pathways are known, the Sn- glycerol-3-phosphate pathways which predominate in the liver and adipose tissues and monoacyl pathway in the intestine. Triglycerides constitute the main source of energy for the body, apart from being the most reliable energy reserves of the human body; triglycerols take part in metabolic processes that determine the rate of fatty acid oxidation. The plasma levels all free fatty acid the biosynthesis of other lipid molecules and the metabolic fate of lipoprotein.

Researches have consistently linked high triglycerides levels with heart disease, heart attacks and stroke, especially in people with low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and type 2 diabetes. Non-fasting serum triglycerides predict the incidence of coronary heart disease among men and women who possesses low mean values of total cholesterol. Further adjustment for high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol suggests an independency role of triglycerides.

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