In this tutorial about flavonoids, we will treat or profer solutions the to the following questions,
what are flavonoids? what are the classifications of it? and we will also look at the characteristics. Hope you are ready for the tutorial? ok let’s go there.
Flavonoids are a class of polyphenolic plant and fungus secondary metabolites. Chemically, flavonoids have the general structure of a 15-carbon skeleton, which consists of two phenyl rings and a heterocyclic ring. This carbon structure can be abbreviated C6-C3-C6. Flavonoids amongst other plant plant secondary metabolites (phytochemicals) is one of the largest classes of plant phenolics. Remember phenolic compounds contain a phenol group hans (hydroxyl functional group attached to an aromatic benzene ring)
Plant phenolics are a heterogeneous group; some are only soluble in organic solvents, some are water-soluble, carboxylic acid and glycosides. Others are large insoluble polymers. The basic carbon skeleton of a flavonoid contains 15 carbons in an arrangement with two aromatic rings connected by a 3-carbon bridge. This structure results from two separate biosynthetic pathways. The bridge and one aromatic ring, which is the ring B, in propane unit is synthesized from phenylalanine produced in the skikimi acid pathway. The 6 carbon of the other aromatic ring, which is A, originate from 3 acetate units, through the malonic acid pathway.
￼Classifications of flavonoids
They are classified into different groups based primarily on the degree of oxidation of the three carbon bridge. The groups include:
- flavonoids or bioflavonoids
- isoflavonoids, derived from 3-phenylchromen-4-one (3-phenyl-1,4-benzopyrone) structure
- neoflavonoids, derived from 4-phenylcoumarine (4-phenyl-1,2-benzopyrone) structure
Characteristics of flavonoids
The basic carbon skeleton may have numerous substituents.
Hydroxyl groups: hydroxy groups are usually present at positions 5, 7 and 4 but may also be found at other positions.Sugars: they are also very common as well and in fat, the majority of it exist naturally as glycoside.both hydroxyl groups and sugars increase the water solubility of flavonoids, other for substituents such as methyl ethers or modified isopentyl units make them lipophilic. Different types of flavonoids perform very different functions in the plant such as pigmentation and defence.
The color associated with it’s laboratory test is yellow colorations. Though, there exist numerous ways of testing for the presence of the phytochemical.
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